Thursday, May 21, 2020
The argument over whether marijuana should be legalized has always been a controversial topic, troubling many American citizens. However, marijuana and its essential cannabinoids, such as THC, were used long before America was even an idea. Many ancient civilizations have used marijuana in medical practices. For example, the Egyptians used marijuana to treat sore eyes. As scientific studies continue, some effects of cannabis on the body are proving to be more positive. Recreational laws in four states and medical laws in more than twenty states have led to more research. Consequently, the benefits of marijuana are beginning to rise and marijuana is becoming more and more socially acceptable. Medical marijuana should be legalized nationwide because of its many positive benefits on American medical care, and its ability to boost the economy and provide job opportunities. Medical marijuana produces medicinal and therapeutic effects to treat a variety of chronic illnesses around the worl d. The chemical THC in marijuana provides Ã¢â¬Å"feelings of euphoria and Ã¢â¬ËfloatingÃ¢â¬â¢ and contains pain relieving propertiesÃ¢â¬ (Zimmerman). THC stands for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. A few of the illnesses that medical marijuana has an effect on include; cancer, glaucoma, alzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, post-traumatic stress disorder, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, AIDS, anxiety, depression, the list goes on. Here are a few examples of the benefits medical marijuana provides for medical health care. MedicalShow MoreRelatedShould Marijuana Be Legalized?849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhether marijuana should be legalized. Around 23 states have legalized marijuana for medical and recreational use. In the state of Illinois, medicinal use of marijuana has been passed on April 17, 2013. Since January 2014, patients are able to obtain marijuana with a doctor s recommendation. The new debate is whether marijuana should be legalized for the general public as a recreational drug. Although some believe that marijuana is harmless, and that it has beneficial medicinal uses, marijuana shouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarijuana in Society Cannabis, formally known as marijuana is a drug obtained from the tops, stems and leaves of the hemp plant cannabis. The drug is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Only substances like caffeine, nicotine and alcohol are used more (Ã¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ 1). In the U. S. where some use it to feel Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ or get an escape from reality. The drug is referred to in many ways; weed, grass, pot, and or reefer are some common names used to describe the drug (Ã¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ 1). Like mostRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescannabis plant or marijuana is intended for use of a psychoactive drug or medicine. It is used for recreational or medical uses. In some religions, marijuana is predominantly used for spiritual purposes. Cannabis is indigenous to central and south Asia. Cannabis has been scientifically proven that you can not die from smoking marijuana. Marijuana should be legalized to help people with medical benefits, econo mic benefits, and criminal benefits. In eight states, marijuana was legalized for recreationalRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarijuana is a highly debatable topic that is rapidly gaining attention in society today. Ã Legalizing marijuana can benefit the economy of this nation through the creation of jobs, increased tax revenue, and a decrease in taxpayer money spent on law enforcement. Ã Ã Many people would outlaw alcohol, cigarettes, fast food, gambling, and tanning beds because of the harmful effects they have on members of a society, but this is the United States of America; the land of the free and we should give peopleRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe legalization of marijuana became a heated political subject in the last few years. Twenty-one states in America have legalized medical marijuana. Colorado and Washington are the only states where marijuana can be purchased recreationally. Marijuana is the high THC level part of the cannabis plant, which gives users the Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ feeling. There is ample evidence that supports the argument that marijuana is beneficial. The government should legalize marijuana recreationally for three main reasonsRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespolitics in the past decade would have to be the legalization of marijuana. The sale and production of marijuana have been legalized for medicinal uses in over twenty states and has been legalized for recreational uses in seven states. Despite the ongoing support for marijuana, it has yet to be fully legalized in the federal level due to cultural bias against Ã¢â¬Å"potÃ¢â¬ smoking and the focus over its negative effects. However, legalizing marijuana has been proven to decrease the rate of incrimination in AmericaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesshows the positive benefits of marijuana, it remains illegal under federal law. In recent years, numerous states have defied federal law and legalized marijuana for both recreational and medicinal use. Arizona has legalized marijuana for medical use, but it still remains illegal to use recreationally. This is absurd, as the evidence gathered over the last few decades strongly supports the notion that it is safer than alcohol, a widely available substance. Marijuana being listed as a Schedule I drugRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSHOULD MARIJUANA BE LEGALIZED? Marijuana is a drug that has sparked much controversy over the past decade as to whether or not it should be legalized. People once thought of marijuana as a bad, mind-altering drug which changes a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality which can lead to crime and violence through selling and buying it. In the past, the majority of citizens believed that marijuana is a harmful drug that should be kept off the market and out of the hands of the public. However, a recent study conductedRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages But what needs to be known before a user can safely and completely make the decision if trying Marijuana is a good idea? Many do not want the drug to be legalized because they claim that Cannabis is a Ã¢â¬Å"gateway drugÃ¢â¬ , meaning it will cause people to try harder drugs once their body builds up a resistance to Marijuana, because a stronger drug will be needed to reach a high state. This argument is often falsely related to the medical si de of the debate over legalization. It is claimed that this wouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?985 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLegalize Marijuana Despite what people believe about marijuana, it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t once proved to be the cause of any real issue. It makes you wonder what the reason as to why there is a war on drugs. Why is marijuana the main concern? Since the time that alcohol and tobacco became legal, people wonder why marijuana isnÃ¢â¬â¢t legal yet. The fact that marijuana is illegal is mainly caused by the amount of money, jobs, and pride invested in the drug war. Once the government starts anything, they stick to it. At
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Tainted Future A common concept present in society is Ã¢â¬Å"todayÃ¢â¬â¢s children are tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s futureÃ¢â¬ however, when adults bring children into a misguided culture, there is a great impact on their destiny. Literature often reveals how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is a reflection of adult actions. This is an apparent theme in the short stories, Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson and Ã¢â¬Å"CelebrationÃ¢â¬ by W.D. Valgardson. In JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ residents of a small village gather together for their annual drawing of the lottery. The tradition begins with the head of each household drawing a piece of paper from a black box. Once everyone has drawn, they unfold their slips of paper simultaneously. Tessie Hutchinson is this years unlucky villager thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Furthermore, it is evident that the children are born into this practice. Old man Warner, the archetypal tradition keeper in the short story, expr esses the importance of tradition in the town as another resident talks about how other villages have already given up the lottery: Ã¢â¬Å"pack of crazy fools...first thing youÃ¢â¬â¢d know, weÃ¢â¬â¢d all be eating stewed chickweed and acorns. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s always been a lotteryÃ¢â¬ (Jackson 27). With this persistent idea that keeping tradition is exceedingly important, children do not know any other way to live. Self preservation becomes the only way they know how to survive as they blindly follow this practice. These selfish instincts are what lead children to treat even their own family and friends as insignificant. As Tessie is being sacrificed, her desperation for them to cease is obvious as she Ã¢â¬Å"[is] in the center of a cleared space by now, and she held her hands out desperately as the villagers [move] in on herÃ¢â¬ (Jackson 30). The hostile nature of this encounter reveals the genuine feelings of the villagers. The elders eagerness persuades the children to be have similarly. Throughout the story Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson, a belligerent community is present due to the appalling actions of the adults. Furthermore, a negligent atmosphere is evident in W.D. ValgardsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CelebrationÃ¢â¬ through Eric and
string(44) " people into the modern society \(Shipek\)\." Oral History Documentaries are Human Traditions, how man live and what he believes. In essence it transcribes what is in man, his dignity as a human person and his continues search of himself. These human traditions are written in autobiographies or in memories or diaries and journals. We will write a custom essay sample on Oral History Documentaries or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sometimes re-echoed in ideologies (patterns of our beliefs and practices in a human society) by our memories. As Marcovici sited that our remembrance (memory as part of ideology that has a power in relation to what society we reproduce) prevails our deduction of the past over the present. In the acts of meanings it includes all experiences in a world of meanings, images, social bonds, what man would like to become and what he is afraid to become. It is important that we understand the past so we could act on moral choices about our present. Oral history is also all our personal histories into a larger collective histories. With the abounding technologies found in the internet, oral history finds in a new form in digital story telling. Facts in which have been encoded in the most ordinary and common places. Oral histories bring to our sense of the present of manÃ¢â¬â¢s dominion over greed and forces of nature: Below is what oral histories bring to our sense of our present world in terms of man dominion over greed in the documentaries At the River I Stand. It tells about a dramatic climax of the Civil Rights movement, a local labor dispute that became a national issue and the reason behind the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at Memphis in 1968. Ã¢â¬Å"I am a manÃ¢â¬ is more than an ideology it is a fact and a simple but venerable truth. And because I am a man, a rational creature, I cannot be taken as a second class citizen. The 1,300 African American sanitation exploited workers (works to collect garbage) demands for a full exclusion in American life. AFSCME leadership march a 65 day strike. This excellent film is a 58 minute documentary which will inspire the viewers to free themselves of any racial and economic injustice. Just by observing the profound determination of this ordinary people as formed by a racist society as the lowest caste of human beings (David Appleby) one would be able to understand the simple basic need of man which is respect despite the world of greed. This oral history also inspired James Cleveland in his unforgettable quotes Ã¢â¬Å"one more river to cross before I lay my burden downÃ¢â¬ . This memory happens in Memphis in the most ordinary places and days. The commonplace called street but coincided with the action that hoped to rebuke the future of economic injustice because of the greediness of few due to prejudices and racism. The person who seems to be frivolous and trivial marked their way to civil rights movement, as they raise their placards with these simple words Ã¢â¬Å"I am a manÃ¢â¬ . A word that is in the past but is still as true as the present and contains the hopes for the future. As simple as what a jazz musician R. Roland Kirk that every time he plays his saxophone in a concert he always began by saying that this is not just a sideshow (it is more than that). His music should penetrate into his white American audience and in his tune deliberately re-echoes the inequality of men due to racial discrimination, an injustice and inequities that still plaques our society. (Basso) History in American Age of Popular Culture makes us understand the past so we could ponder the moral issues about the or rather our choices in the present. It is one way of collecting our personal histories into a larger collective history. History takes place in a certain location because a place is the first of all existence. One cannot exist without a place. However there are places that stink with stinginess and greed. Wisdom in places is a common place but it is where history takes a place in the realm of this world. According to the autobiography of Delfina Cuero an Indian who had lived in Mission Viejo since her childhood years that Indians had to move from place to place to hunt or when the white men comes. In her narrative with the places and plants and things that they ate probed the authenticity of her claim that they were the first settlers in San Diego, California. Though the mountains were cut and the old trees where they built their houses with Ã¢â¬Å"tamuÃ¢â¬ a kind of reed, she could still recall the places and events that had taken place. Her vivid memory made it easy for the author Florence Connoly Shipek to write her life story. In the introduction the author made in known that the work is to research for the Mission Indian Claims. However, none in the reservation villages can be found a single surviving coastal Indians. The threefold division of the first settlers makes it difficult to locate search. Upon hearing DelfinaÃ¢â¬â¢s story it was discovered that in 1900 to 1910 DieggueÃ ±os (Spanish term for KumeyaÃ¢â¬â¢y people) Indians (means those who are attached to the San Diego Mission) had lived in Mission Valley and in various places around San Diego wherein it is now called 13th and 17th around K Street. The anthropological study is to find out the authenticity of the life of Delfina of which the later was able to prove without hesitation and malice. As the story goes we learned that they are poor, most of the time hungry but cheerful catholic people. Despite of the lack of written record the study paved its way through the way the Indians lived during those years. The narrative life of Delfina shows the destruction of Indian self sufficiency on the land, the lost of the Indian society, culture and religion. It also narrates the very slow pace of integration of this people into the modern society (Shipek). You read "Oral History Documentaries" in category "Papers" DelfinaÃ¢â¬â¢s story will always be looked upon. The success of the work promises a good life for the DigueÃ ±os children or next the generation of these Indians to come. Oral histories bring to our sense of the present of manÃ¢â¬â¢s dominion over forces of nature: A documentary film by Spike Lee an African American director Ã¢â¬â When the Levees Broke: A requiem in Four Acts: Is a heart-rending story of those who survived the devastating ordeal of the destruction of New Orleans. The film also looks at a city that has triumphed over its ordeal because of the resilience of its community, surviving death and amidst the ruins they find strength. A sign of the New Orleaneans rich cultural legacy. The spirit of new Orleaneans says Lee is indomitable Ã¢â¬â these people are accustomed to hardships, they are fighting for their lives. Again man was put to test: Man as always have dominion over the forces of nature. They will never disappear in this planet. Oral history from different interview cleared out that the reason why the city is 80 percent underwater is not because of the hurricane Katrina but it was the breach on the embankment of the river. Lee also mentioned the U. S. government sluggish response to the problem of the poor African American citizen. His identity again in his sense of place re-echoed inequality among men. His resilience was deeply rooted on earth and in his consciousness that it is his instinct to survive no matter what. Man therefore is still the master of the created world. Lee incorporates in his film a musical culture that is only driven by pure passion and honesty. Their identity has persisted. Their voices and songs are strong and firm. The heart of the marvelous film is centered on the president of the most powerful country indifference and oversight in relation to the destruction of New Orleans compared to catastrophic war in other countries. It explored the real attitude of the rich towards the poor of the world and the depth of its neglect. The film shows the damning picture of BushÃ¢â¬â¢s America in relation to a state in calamity which is only skin deep concern. An act which shows indifference not to the race but to the socio economic state of a person. The film also portrays the lost culture of its people. The title of the film connotes the fact that it is not the hurricane that devastated New Orleans: a When the Levees Broke documentary re-affirms the cause of the catastrophe that happens to this American Africans, poor of the most powerful country of the world. It is not the hurricane that destroys New Orleans, But, the real cause was the breach of the embankment of the river. The most difficult part of the film making is asking people questions about the incidence because these are the same people who have lost a home or a love one. However, it is LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s job or duty to ask those difficult questions. A question that stirs up feelings and make people break down (Lee). Although the intention is to have people talk about how it can make changes in their own perspective about life. The outrage for the 45 million African-Americans of these Euopean journalists jumps on Lee as if he was the spokesperson of this neglected community which is being treated by the almighty U. S. A. as a third world country. It was the time that the film director of this story decided to do it. Never did the federal government neglected its own citizen who needed help. Lee even criticized when a horrific earthquake hits Indonesia, and in two days the US government was there. Asking the question did you see the distance between Indonesia and the New Orleans? Only one fourth of the population is there. The New Orleans black citizens were dispersed in other 46 states, they wish to come home and work but there got to be no place for them. These poor Americans loose their home to a seemingly a natural disaster. It is hoped that the oral history documentary will remind the U. S. that New Orleaneans is not over with the plight. They in fact need help. The film will also determine the pros and cons over what happened to New Orleans as a definitive moment to the history of America. It is hoped that the film will be and elegy for the lost culture of the inhabitants of New Orleans real state in relation to the calamity and may give an impressive importance of our new century (Fraser and ). A life story is an oral unit of social interaction (Linde). These are coming from interviews and can be written as autobiographies. A biography ends till the end of someone else life. A biographer looks for younger self and an ideological conversion after the passage of many years. He accounts for the difference of the subject and the writer and claim he have the whole stories. It also tells the importance of the subject. The 9/11 attacks on the WTO and Pentagon cancelled all major networks to provide continuous coverage of the event (Caughy). However, the news agenda was only on the subject that is asked to be focused. We are today in the digital knowledge, a capability of sending digitally coded information. Intranets were linked to cheap regulated public telephones that kept labor rates low. Net users acted to break down barriers which made it possible for the massive sharing of files like the World Wide Web. Community based nets provide access to the public to which many international and non-governments institutions links their networks. Digital Story telling has truly taken its ground in the Internet. Cyberactivism changes the course of history in a way it disseminate knowledge and stories. Conclusion and reflection of consequences of Digital Story Telling to Oral History Documentaries: Story telling is a very intimate gesture of intimacy, one listens and the other gives confidence to the recipient. Oral histories based on traditional documentaries are facts based on the actual experiences of man. The consequence of digital story telling to oral history is the easy access and immediate control of the written facts of the documents. If not properly controlled could lead readers and listeners into error. The sense of documentaries in our life is to use this knowledge as a tool in order to know where we lead. Past experiences is needed in order to open the gates of tomorrow and make the present a life worth living. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s constancy to change needs a journal of his life in order not to get lost. Loosing a culture is loosing oneself. The rich experience of human history is the sublime reality of his existence. Though oral history documentary is sown with facts, digital story telling though there is a relative cyber activism may lead truth to some manipulations which may cloud the truths and could give information which is only beneficial to a few. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s history always underlines who are the strong and the weak. Though both are man, the least becomes a lesser being in terms of his presence in a civil society. It is the mighty that continuous to flourish. In this world of indifference history reflects the downfall of the greedy as if someone, stronger than nature dictates the course of history for the whole humankind. In some way, our life story though we may have choices is or was predestined. How to cite Oral History Documentaries, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Sunt Leones. Stevie Smith Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Sunt LeonesÃ¢â¬ This poem shows some of the most representative stylistic features that characterise Stevie SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry. Economy of expression and verbal eclecticism are two of the most remarkable aspects of her poetry, but maybe the originality of SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s work lies especially in the way she combines her poetic comic voice with the seriousness of the subjects dealt with. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunt LeonesÃ¢â¬ clearly exemplifies these features. The poem is a kind of theological speculation developed in a predominantly comic tone. Stevie Smith was a declared religious skeptic who (in her own words) was Ã¢â¬Å"always in danger of falling into beliefÃ¢â¬ (NAEL, 8th edition, vol. 2, 2006: 2373). She, then, felt somewhat attracted to religious themes, and in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunt LeonesÃ¢â¬ , she deploys an ingenious reflection about the role the lions that devoured the Christians at the Roman Coliseum could have played in the consolidation of Christianity. The importance given to the fact is clearly expressed in the final couplet, in which the word Ã¢â¬Å"LionhoodÃ¢â¬ (with initial capital Ã¢â¬Å"LÃ¢â¬ ) particularly strikes our attention. We will write a custom essay on Sunt Leones. Stevie Smith specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Therefore, on the one hand, we have a serious subject matter in both religious and metaphysical terms, since the poem deals not only with Christianity but also with death itself. On the other hand, the seriousness of the theme contrasts with its verbal and formal expression. As regards the metre, the poem does not have a regular pattern: the length of the lines varies from seven up to sixteen syllables, and the rhythm is also variable. However, except in the lines 5-7, the poem follows an almost regular pattern of rhyme. It has two different effects: in some cases, there appears a rhyming iambic pentametre couplet, which is a classic literary pattern (for instance, in lines 15-16); in some other cases, the rhyming lines seems more like a nursery rhyme. It is that combination of classical and popular forms which strikes the reader. At the same time, the extensive use of enjambment provides the poem with a prose tone, thus challenging the boundaries between genres. The most clear example of enjambment appears in the lines 2-3, with a line ending in a preposition (Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦has now been seen a / not entirely negligible partÃ¢â¬ ). Eclecticism is particularly remarkable in her verbal expression, which includes complex phrases with refined vocabulary (Ã¢â¬Å"not entirely negligible partÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"liturgically sacrificial hueÃ¢â¬ ), colloquialisms (Ã¢â¬Å"wellÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"it appearsÃ¢â¬ ), journalistic expressions (Ã¢â¬Å"the state of thingsÃ¢â¬ ), and even a phrase in Latin (the title). The mixture of forms and registers combines with the use of wit and humour (predominantly dark humour, as we can see in lines 11-12: Ã¢â¬Å"And if the Christians felt a little blueÃ¢â¬â / Well, people being eaten often doÃ¢â¬ ), so that the contrast between content and form, between solemnity and irony, is the most striking feature of the poem. In short, both the content and the rhetorical devices used by the poet ultimately aim at challenging all kind of traditional patterns or beliefs, either literary or spiritual.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
English Teaching Abbreviations Explained You might be a bit confused by the all the English teaching abbreviations that are used in the profession. Here is a list of the most common English teaching abbreviations that are used in the profession with an emphasis on ESL / EFL teaching. ELT - English Language TeachingESL - English as a Second LanguageEFL - English as a Foreign Language The main difference between these is that ESL is English taught to foreign language speakers living in an English speaking country like the United States, Canada, England, Australia, etc. English as a foreign language, on the other hand, is taught to those wishing to learn English for their study/ work / hobby needs but who live in countries where English is not the first language. Teaching Abbreviations to Know Here are some more important abbreviations related to teaching, teaching certificates, and English exams: AAAL - American Association for Applied Linguistics ACTFL - American Council on the teaching of Foreign Languages AE - American English BAAL - British Association of Applied Linguistics BC - British Council BEC - Business English Certificate - Cambridge business English exam certificate BrE - British English BVT - Bilingual Vocational Training CAE - Certificate in Advanced English - the fourth Cambridge Exam Cambridge Exams - The standard in English examination throughout the world outside of the USA (where the TOEFL is preferred). CALI - Computer-Assisted Language Instruction CALL - Computer-Assisted Language Learning CanE - Canadian English CAT - Computer Adaptive Testing CBT - Computer-Based Teaching CEELT - Cambridge Examination in English for Language Teachers. Tests the English competency of non-native teachers of English. CEIBT - Certificate in English for International Business and Trade for advanced levels. CPE - Certificate of Proficiency in English - the fifth and the most advanced of Cambridges series of exams (roughly comparable to a score of 600-650 on the TOEFL). CELTA - Certificate in English language teaching to adults (Cambridge/RSA Teaching Certificate also known as C-TEFLA) DELTA - Diploma in English language teaching (Cambridge/RSA Language Teaching Scheme) EAP - English for Academic Purposes ECCE - Exam for the Certificate of Competency in English (Michigan University) - lower level. ECPE - Exam for the Certificate of Proficiency in English (Michigan University) - higher level. EFL - English as a Foreign Language EGP - English for general purposes EIP - English as an International Language ELICOS - English Language Intensive Courses to Overseas Students. Government registered centers teaching English to overseas students in Australia. ELT - English Language Teaching ESL - English as a Second Language. ESOL - English for Speakers of Other Languages ESP -English for Specific Purposes (business English, English for tourism, etc.) ETS - Educational Testing Service FCE - First Certificate in English - the third of Cambridges series of exams (comparable to a score of 500 on the TOEFL and 5.7 on the IELTS). GMAT - Graduate Management Admission Test. The GMAT measures general verbal, mathematical, and analytical writing skills. GPA - Grade Point Average GRE - Graduate Record Examination - an evaluation test for graduate admission to colleges and universities in the U.S. IATEFL - International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language IPA - International Phonetic Association K12 - Kindergarten - 12th grade. KET - Key English Test - The most elementary of Cambridges series of exams L1 - Language 1 - native language L2 - Language 2 - the language you are learning LEP - Limited English Proficient LL - Language Learning MT - Mother Tongue NATECLA - National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (UK) NATESOL - National Association of Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages NCTE - National Council of Teachers of English NLP - Neurolinguistic Programming NNEST - Non-Native English Speaking Teacher NNL - Non-Native Language MTELP - Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency OE - Old English OED - Oxford English Dictionary PET - Preliminary English Test - The second of Cambridges series of exams. RP - Received Pronunciation - standard British pronunciation RSA/Cambridge C-TEFLA - Certificate of Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults. A professional qualification for prospective EFL teachers. RSA/Cambridge D-TEFLA - Diploma of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Advanced qualification for EFL teachers who have already completed the C-TEFLA. SAE - Standard American English SAT - Scholastic Assessment (Aptitude) Test - pre-university entrance exam in the USA TEFL - Teaching English as a Foreign Language TEFLA - Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults TEIL - Teaching English as an International Language TESL - Teaching English as a Second Language TESOL - Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language - the most common English proficiency exam for North American universities and colleges, also accepted by some British universities and employers as proof of English proficiency. TOEIC - The TOEIC (pronounced toe-ick) is a Test of English for International Communication. VE - Vocational English VESL - Vocational English as a Second Language YLE - Young Learners English Tests - Cambridge Examinations for young learners
Monday, March 2, 2020
Complex Question Fallacys A complex question is aÃ fallacy in which the answer to a given question presupposes a prior answer to a prior question. Also known as (or closely related to) aÃ loaded question, a trick question, a leading question, the fallacy of the false question, and the fallacy of many questions. Have you stopped beating your wife? is the classic example of the complex question. Ralph Keyes has traced this example back to a 1914 book of legal humor. Since then, he says, it has . . . become the standard allusion to any question that cant be answered without self-incrimination (I Love It When You Talk Retro, 2009). Examples and Observations Lets talk about Glaucon.Ã Where did you get the poisonÃ you used on him?I never!His whole family died- wife, children, mother, the lot. Surely you feel badly about that?Didymus passed his hand over his eyes. I didnt poison anyone.Ã¢â¬ (Bruce Macbain,Ã The Bull Slayer: A Plinius Secundus Mystery. Poisoned Pen Press, 2013)Ã He was woken two hours later and presently a doctor examined him.What drugs were you on? he asked.Wilt stared at him blankly. Ive never taken any drugs in my life, he muttered.(Tom Sharpe,Ã Wilt in Nowhere. Hutchinson, 2004)Ã The Unjustified Presumption Plurium interrogationum, which translates as of many questions, is otherwise known as the fallacy of the complex question. When several questions are combined into one, in such a way that a yes-or-no answer is required, the person they are asked of has no chance to give separate replies to each, and the fallacy of the complex question is committed... Did the pollution you caused increase or decrease your profits?Did your misleading claims result in you getting promoted?Is your stupidity inborn? All of them contain an assumption that the concealed question has already been answered affirmatively. It is this unjustified presumption which constitutes the fallacy... The complex question has to be broken into simpler ones; and often the denial of the fact presumed invalidates the larger question altogether.(Madsen Pirie,Ã How to Win Every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic, 2nd ed. Bloomsbury, 2015)Ã Trick Questions The fallacy of complex question is the interrogative form of the fallacy of begging the question. Like the latter, it begs the question by assuming the conclusion at issue:Before rushing to answer a complex question, it is best to question the question: a) Have you stopped beating your wife?b) Did John ever give up his bad habits?c) Are you still a heavy drinker? In each of these questions there lies an assumed answer to a previous question. Did John have bad habits? is the unasked question whose answer is assumed in question b. We need to withhold any answer to question b until this prior question has been resolved. In some instances of this fallacy, considerable struggle may be necessary in order to liberate ourselves from the misleading influence of a complex question. The serious consequences of complex questions can be appreciated by considering these trick questions, which would be out of order in a court of law: d) What did you use to wipe your fingerprints from the gun?e) How long had you contemplated this robbery before you carried it out? (S. Morris Engel, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies, 3rd ed. St. Martins, 1986) An Implicit Argument Although not an argument as such, a complex question involves an implicit argument. This argument is usually intended to trap the respondent into acknowledging something that he or she might otherwise not want to acknowledge. Examples:Obviously, each of the questions is really two questions.(Patrick J. Hurley, A Concise Introduction to Logic. Thomson Wadsworth, 2005) Have you stopped cheating on exams?Where did you hide the marijuana you were smoking?
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Cometition law in international context - Essay Example Statement of purpose The Minister of Trade and Industry should prevent nationalization of electronic mail service and reinforcing the monopoly of Greek Post office. These plans are anti-competitive and will lead to prices paid by consumers. Greek is a Member State of the European Union and several provisions, Regulations and legislations of EU aim at ensuring market competition. Background of the problem The new Minister of Trade and Industry in Greece is planning to nationalise the electronic mail service, reinforcing the monopoly of Greek post office in the delivery of traditional mail. The objective is to ensure that Greek post office maintains important market share of customers. However, most customers have already switched from the traditional postal services to modern electronic mail, which is offered by efficient private companies. After nationalization, the Greek post office aims at increasing the prices of both services since the costs of delivering the ordinary post has be en increasing over the recent years. The Greek post office will decline access to its facilities including fibre optic infrastructure, to private companies who would like to offer competition to Greek post office by providing internet service and electronic mail services. International competition law According to the European Union treaty on competition, member states are not supposed to enact policies that create rigidity in trade and hinder competition or distort the market economy. Article 101 of the Treaty of the Functioning of the EU prohibits agreements that distort market competition or encourage cartels. This article aims at prevention undertakings that restrict and distort market economies of the member states within the internal market. Some of the prohibited practices include limitations on production, technical development and investments in the market. Direct or indirect price fixation or the selling and buying prices and trading conditions are prohibited by the Articl e. Member states are prohibited from applying different trading conditions on similar transactions with other trading partners in the economy1. The EC Treaty provisions regarding competition are contained in Article 3 (g) and Articles 81-89 of the Treaty that established the European Community along with several regulations and subsidiary legislations. Articles 81 to Article 86 mainly apply to the trade undertakings while Articles 87 to Article 89 apply to the Member States. The primary objective of the EU competition law is to prohibit internal markets distortion. Article 81 (1) prohibits all trade agreements between undertakings and association decisions that may hinder trade between member states2. However, the Article makes exception s for the trade agreements that aim at improving the welfare of the EU citizens by promoting the distribution of goods or technical promotion, while allowing customers a fair share of the benefits of the trade agreement. The excepted trade agreement s should not impose conditions and restrictions on the customers in the access of the goods or eliminate free competition in the market in regard to the goods being produced. Article 1 (1) of the Regulations 1/2003, the agreements that are outlined in Article 81 (1) and that contravene conditions of Article 81 (3) are unlawful. Article 1 (2) of the